Skin Care

Skin Types

  1. Always burns easily, never tans, extremely sun sensitive skin
  2. Usually burns easily, tans minimally, very sun sensitive skin
  3. Sometimes burns, tans gradually to light brown, sun sensitive skin
  4. Burns minimally, always tans to moderate brown, minimally sun sensitive skin
  5. Rarely burns, tans well, sun insensitive skin
  6. Never burns, deep pigmented, sun insensitive skin


  • Ultraviolet A rays are able to penetrate deeper than ultraviolet B rays.  While UVA is most known for causing photoaging (wrinkling), it also plays a part in the development of skin cancer.  UVB is most responsible for causing burns of the skin which may lead to skin cancer. 

Sunscreen Facts

  • SPF (sun protection factor) is protection against UVB rays and is calculated by the time needed to cause sunburn with the use of sunscreen, compared to the time on unprotected skin.  Therefore, with proper use of an SPF of 15, it should take 15 times longer before a burn would occur if you had not used sunscreen at all.
  • Broad spectrum (UVA and UVB coverage) SPF 30 or greater should always be used
  • Apply at least 1oz of sunscreen and be sure to re-apply every 2 hours (more often after swimming or perspiring).
  • In addition to sunscreen, wearing protective clothing and wide-brimmed hats offers protection.   
  • When applying sunscreen, don’t forget exposed areas of the scalp, ears, hands, feet and even lips!

Skin Cancer Facts

  • There are more than 1 million cases of skin cancer in the US each year.
  • Incidences of melanoma are increasing in young adults 15-29 years of age.
  • The risk of developing melanoma increases in individuals who have greater than 50 moles, a history of atypical moles, or a family history of melanoma.
  • It is estimated that one American dies of melanoma every hour.
  • Early detection of melanoma is key.  If treated before metastasis, there is a 99% survival rate.
  • Everyone should do self skin exams once a month to assess the ABCDEs and should have a yearly skin exam by their dermatologist (more frequently if recommended).

ABCDEs of the Skin

  • Asymmetry: One half does not match the other half
  • Border irregularity: Edges that are ragged, notched or blurred
  • Color: Color is uneven. Varying shades of brown, tan or black
  • Diameter: Usually but not always greater than 6mm
  • Evolving: Looks different than the rest or changes in size, shape or color
  • Also be aware of any lesions that may itch, bleed, or fail to heal or become painful

Indoor Tanning Facts and Associated Risks

  • Tanning of the skin is the result of injury to the skin’s DNA which darkens to protect the skin from continued damage. The result of these changes is skin cancer.
  • Exposure to UV radiation from indoor tanning increases the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer.  That risk is 75% greater if the exposure was at a young age.*Indoor tanning can also contribute to eye damage and even lead to ocular melanoma.
  • The United States Department of Health and Human Services has declared UV radiation as a known carcinogen.

Vitamin and the Sun

Although exposure to the sun does produce vitamin D, you can also obtain a sufficient amount through proper nutrition and supplements without increasing your risk of skin cancer.

What to expect at your yearly skin check

You will be brought into a private exam room and be asked to get into a gown. Dr. Caballero or Mrs. Norris PA-C (whomever your appointment is scheduled with) will come in to go over any concerning areas you may have and examine your skin head to toe. If any concerning lesions or moles are identified, they will be treated accordingly.

Over the counter product recommendations

While our office carries many product lines exclusive to physicians, we recognize there are numerous over the counter options as well.  We often recommend product lines such as Coppertone and Neutrogena for SPF use, and Cetaphil, Cerave, Eucerine, and Aveeno for daily skin care and sensitive skin use.